Dissociation (psychology)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Template:SDcat

Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Navbar/configuration' not found.

Dissociation, as a concept that has been developed over time, is any of a wide array of experiences, ranging from a mild emotional detachment from the immediate surroundings, to a more severe disconnection from physical and emotional experiences. The major characteristic of all dissociative phenomena involves a detachment from reality, rather than a loss of reality as in psychosis.[1][2][3][4]

The phenomena are diagnosable under the DSM-5 as a group of disorders as well as a symptom of other disorders through various diagnostic tools.[5][6] Its cause is believed to be related to neurobiological mechanisms, trauma, anxiety, and psychoactive drugs. Research has further related it to suggestibility, hypnosis, and it is inversely related to mindfulness, which is a potential treatment.

History

French philosopher and psychologist Pierre Janet (1859–1947) is considered to be the author of the concept of dissociation.[7] Contrary to some conceptions of dissociation, Janet did not believe that dissociation was a psychological defense.[8][9]

Psychological defense mechanisms belong to Freud's theory of psychoanalysis, not to Janetian psychology. Janet claimed that dissociation occurred only in persons who had a constitutional weakness of mental functioning that led to hysteria when they were stressed. Although it is true that many of Janet's case histories described traumatic experiences, he never considered dissociation to be a defense against those experiences. Quite the opposite: Janet insisted that dissociation was a mental or cognitive deficit. Accordingly, he considered trauma to be one of many stressors that could worsen the already-impaired "mental efficiency" of a hysteric, thereby generating a cascade of hysterical (in today's language, "dissociative") symptoms.[7][10][11][12]

Although there was great interest in dissociation during the last two decades of the nineteenth century (especially in France and England), this interest rapidly waned with the coming of the new century.[7] Even Janet largely turned his attention to other matters.

There was a sharp peak in interest in dissociation in America from 1890 to 1910, especially in Boston as reflected in the work of William James, Boris Sidis, Morton Prince, and William McDougall. Nevertheless, even in America, interest in dissociation rapidly succumbed to the surging academic interest in psychoanalysis and behaviorism.

For most of the twentieth century, there was little interest in dissociation. Despite this, a review of 76 previously published cases from the 1790s to 1942 was published in 1944, describing clinical phenomena consistent with that seen by Janet and by therapists today.[13] In 1971, Bowers and her colleagues[14] presented a detailed, and still quite valid, treatment article. The authors of this article included leading thinkers of their time – John G. Watkins (who developed ego-state therapy) and Zygmunt A. Piotrowski (famed for his work on the Rorschach test). Further interest in dissociation was evoked when Ernest Hilgard (1977) published his neodissociation theory in the 1970s. During the 1970s and 1980s an increasing number of clinicians and researchers wrote about dissociation, particularly multiple personality disorder.[15]

Carl Jung described pathological manifestations of dissociation as special or extreme cases of the normal operation of the psyche. This structural dissociation, opposing tension, and hierarchy of basic attitudes and functions in normal individual consciousness is the basis of Jung's Psychological Types.[16] He theorized that dissociation is a natural necessity for consciousness to operate in one faculty unhampered by the demands of its opposite.

Attention to dissociation as a clinical feature has been growing in recent years as knowledge of PTSD increased, due to interest in dissociative identity disorder, and as neuroimaging research and population studies show its relevance.[17]

Historically the psychopathological concept of dissociation has also another different root: the conceptualization of Eugen Bleuler that looks into dissociation related to schizophrenia.[18]

Diagnosis

Dissociation is commonly displayed on a continuum.[19] In mild cases, dissociation can be regarded as a coping mechanism or defense mechanism in seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress – including boredom or conflict.[20][21][22] At the non-pathological end of the continuum, dissociation describes common events such as daydreaming. Further along the continuum are non-pathological altered states of consciousness.[19][23][24]

More pathological dissociation involves dissociative disorders, including dissociative fugue and depersonalization disorder with or without alterations in personal identity or sense of self. These alterations can include: a sense that self or the world is unreal (depersonalization and derealization), a loss of memory (amnesia), forgetting identity or assuming a new self (fugue), and separate streams of consciousness, identity and self (dissociative identity disorder, formerly termed multiple personality disorder) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.[25][26] Although some dissociative disruptions involve amnesia, other dissociative events do not.[27] Dissociative disorders are typically experienced as startling, autonomous intrusions into the person's usual ways of responding or functioning. Due to their unexpected and largely inexplicable nature, they tend to be quite unsettling.

Dissociative disorders are sometimes triggered by trauma, but may be preceded only by stress, psychoactive substances, or no identifiable trigger at all.[28] The ICD-10 classifies conversion disorder as a dissociative disorder.[19] The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders groups all dissociative disorders into a single category and recognizes dissociation as a symptom of acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and borderline personality disorder.[29]

Misdiagnosis is common among people who display symptoms of dissociative disorders, with an average of seven years to receive proper diagnosis and treatment. Research is ongoing into etiologies, symptomology, and valid and reliable diagnostic tools.[6] In the general population, dissociative experiences that are not clinically significant are highly prevalent with 60% to 65% of the respondents indicating that they have had some dissociative experiences.[30]

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Diagnoses listed under the DSM-5 are dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization/derealization disorder, other specified dissociative disorder and unspecified dissociative disorder. The list of available dissociative disorders listed in the DSM-5 changed from the DSM-IV-TR, as the authors removed the diagnosis of dissociative fugue, classifying it instead as a subtype of dissociative amnesia. Furthermore, the authors recognized derealization on the same diagnostic level of depersonalization with the opportunity of differentiating between the two.[5][31]

The DSM-IV-TR considers symptoms such as depersonalization, derealization and psychogenic amnesia to be core features of dissociative disorders.[5] The DSM-5 carried these symptoms over and described symptoms as positive and negative. Positive symptoms include unwanted intrusions that alter continuity of subjective experiences, which account for the first two symptoms listed earlier with the addition of fragmentation of identity. Negative symptoms include loss of access to information and mental functions that are normally readily accessible, which describes amnesia.[5][31]

Peritraumatic dissociation

Peritraumatic dissociation is considered to be dissociation that is experienced during and immediately following a traumatic event.[32][33][34] Research is on-going related to its development, its importance, and its relationship to trauma, dissociative disorders, and predicting the development of PTSD.[32][33][35][34]

Measurements

Two of the most commonly used screening tools in the community are the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory.[36][37][6] Meanwhile, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV – Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) and its second iteration, the SCID-D-R, are both semi-structured interviews and are considered psychometrically strong diagnostic tools.[38][6]

Other tools include the Office Mental Status Examination (OMSE),[39] which is used clinically due to inherent subjectivity and lack of quantitative use.[6] There is also the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDSI), which lacks substantive clarity for differential diagnostics.[6]

Peritraumatic dissociation is measured through the Peritraumatic Dissociative Scale.[40][33]

Etiology

Neurobiological mechanism

Preliminary research suggests that dissociation-inducing events and drugs like ketamine and seizures generate slow rhythmic activity (1-3 Hz) in layer 5 neurons of the posteromedial cortex in humans (retrosplenial cortex in mice). These slow oscillations disconnect other brain regions from interacting with the posteromedial cortex, which may explain the overall experience of dissociation.[41]

Trauma

Dissociation has been described as one of a constellation of symptoms experienced by some victims of multiple forms of childhood trauma, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse.[42][43] This is supported by studies which suggest that dissociation is correlated with a history of trauma.[44]

Dissociation appears to have a high specificity and a low sensitivity to having a self-reported history of trauma, which means that dissociation is much more common among those who are traumatized, yet at the same time there are many people who have suffered from trauma but who do not show dissociative symptoms.[45]

Adult dissociation when combined with a history of child abuse and otherwise interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to contribute to disturbances in parenting behavior, such as exposure of young children to violent media. Such behavior may contribute to cycles of familial violence and trauma.[46]

Symptoms of dissociation resulting from trauma may include depersonalization, psychological numbing, disengagement, or amnesia regarding the events of the abuse. It has been hypothesized that dissociation may provide a temporarily effective defense mechanism in cases of severe trauma; however, in the long term, dissociation is associated with decreased psychological functioning and adjustment.[43]

Other symptoms sometimes found along with dissociation in victims of traumatic abuse (often referred to as "sequelae to abuse") include anxiety, PTSD, low self-esteem, somatization, depression, chronic pain, interpersonal dysfunction, substance abuse, self-harm and suicidal ideation or actions.[42][43][47] These symptoms may lead the victim to present the symptoms as the source of the problem.[42]

Child abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been related to high levels of dissociative symptoms in a clinical sample,[48] including amnesia for abuse memories.[49] It has also been seen that girls who suffered abuse during their childhood had higher reported dissociation scores than did boys who reported dissociation during their childhood.[50] A non-clinical sample of adult women linked increased levels of dissociation to sexual abuse by a significantly older person prior to age 15,[51] and dissociation has also been correlated with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse.[52] When sexual abuse is examined, the levels of dissociation were found to increase along with the severity of the abuse.[53]

A 2012 review article supports the hypothesis that current or recent trauma may affect an individual's assessment of the more distant past, changing the experience of the past and resulting in dissociative states.[54]

Psychoactive substances

Psychoactive drugs can often induce a state of temporary dissociation. Substances with dissociative properties include ketamine, nitrous oxide, alcohol, tiletamine, amphetamine, dextromethorphan, MK-801, PCP, methoxetamine, salvia, muscimol, atropine, ibogaine, and minocycline.[55]

Correlations

Hypnosis and suggestibility

There is evidence to suggest that dissociation is correlated with hypnotic suggestibility, specifically with dissociative symptoms related to trauma. However, the relationship between dissociation and hypnotic suggestibility appears to be complex and indicates further research is necessary.[56][57]

Aspects of hypnosis include absorption, dissociation, suggestibility, and willingness to receive behavioral instruction from others.[58] Both hypnotic suggestibility and dissociation tend to be less mindful, and hypnosis is used as a treatment modality for dissociation, anxiety, chronic pain, trauma, and more.[58][59] Difference between hypnosis and dissociation: one is suggested, imposed by self or other, meaning dissociation is generally more spontaneous altering of awareness.[60]

Mindfulness and meditation

Mindfulness and meditation have shown an inverse relationship specifically with dissociation related to re-experiencing trauma due to the lack of present awareness inherent with dissociation.[32][34] The re-experiencing episodes can include anything between illusions, distortions in perceived reality, and disconnectedness from the present moment.[32][34] It is believed that the nature of dissociation as an avoidance coping or defense mechanism related to trauma inhibits resolution and integration.[34]

Mindfulness and meditation also can alter the state of awareness to the present moment; however, unlike dissociation, it is clinically used to bring greater awareness to an individual’s present state of being. It achieves this through increased abilities to self-regulate attention, emotion, and physiological arousal, maintain continuity of consciousness, and adopt an approach to the present experience that is open and curious.[34] In practice, non-judgmental awareness has displayed a positive relationship with lower symptoms of PTSD avoidance, which can relate to greater opportunities for success with exposure therapy and lowering PTSD symptoms of hypervigilance, re-experiencing, and overgeneralization of fears.[61][34]

When using mindfulness and meditation with people expressing trauma symptoms, it is crucial to be aware of potential trauma triggers, such as the focus on the breath. Often, a meditation session will begin with focused attention and move into open monitoring. With severe trauma symptoms, it may be important to start the meditation training and an individual session at the peripheral awareness, such as the limbs.[34] Moreover, trauma survivors often report feeling numb as a protection against trauma triggers and reminders, which are often painful, making it good practice to start all trainings at the limbs as a gradual exposure to body sensations. Doing so will also increase physical attachment to the present moment and the sense of grounding, thereby increasing tolerance to trauma reminders and decreasing the need and use of dissociation.[34]

Treatment

When receiving treatment, patients are assessed to discover their level of functioning. Some patients might be higher functioning than others. This is taken into account when creating a patient's potential treatment targets. To start off treatment, time is dedicated to increasing a patient's mental level and adaptive actions in order to gain a balance in both their mental and behavioral action. Once this is achieved, the next goal is to work on removing or minimizing the phobia made by traumatic memories, which is causing the patient to dissociate. The final step of treatment includes helping patients work through their grief in order to move forward and be able to engage in their own lives. This is done with the use of new coping skills attained through treatment.[62] One coping skill that can improve dissociation is mindfulness due to the introduction of staying in present awareness while observing non-judgmentally and increasing the ability to regulate emotions.[63] Specifically in adolescents, mindfulness has been shown to reduce dissociation after practicing mindfulness for three weeks.[64]

See also

Page Module:Portal/styles.css has no content.

Template:Div col

Template:Div col end

References

Page Template:Reflist/styles.css has no content.

  1. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Dell PF (March 2006). "A new model of dissociative identity disorder". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 29 (1): 1–26, vii. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2005.10.013. PMID 16530584.
  2. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Butler LD, Duran RE, Jasiukaitis P, Koopman C, Spiegel D (July 1996). "Hypnotizability and traumatic experience: a diathesis-stress model of dissociative symptomatology". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (7 Suppl): 42–63. doi:10.1176/ajp.153.8.A42. PMID 8659641.
  3. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Gleaves DH, May MC, Cardeña E (June 2001). "An examination of the diagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder". Clinical Psychology Review. 21 (4): 577–608. doi:10.1016/s0272-7358(99)00073-2. PMID 11413868.
  4. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Dell PF (5 June 2006). "The multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID): A comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 7 (2): 77–106. doi:10.1300/J229v07n02_06. PMID 16769667. S2CID 16510383.
  5. ^ a b c d Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 1 (Fourth, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) ed.). 2000. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349. ISBN 0-89042-334-2.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Mychailyszyn MP, Brand BL, Webermann AR, Şar V, Draijer N (May 2020). "Differentiating Dissociative from Non-Dissociative Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D)". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 0: 1–16. doi:10.1080/15299732.2020.1760169. PMID 32419662.
  7. ^ a b c Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Ellenberger HF (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 978-0-465-01673-0.
  8. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Janet P (1977) [1893/1901]. The Mental State of Hystericals: A Study of Mental Stigmata and Mental Accidents. Washington, DC: University Publications of America. ISBN 978-0-89093-166-0.
  9. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Janet P (1965) [1920/1929]. The major symptoms of hysteria. New York: Hafner Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-4325-0431-1.
  10. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.McDougall W (1926). Outline of abnormal psychology. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  11. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Mitchell TW (1921). The Psychology of Medicine. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-8274-4240-5.
  12. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Mitchell TW (2007) [1923]. Medical Psychology and Psychical Research. New York: E. P. Dutton. ISBN 978-1-4067-3500-0.
  13. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Taylor WS, Martin MF (1944). "Multiple Personality". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 39 (3): 281–300. doi:10.1037/h0063634.
  14. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Bowers MK, Brecher-Marer S, Newton BW, Piotrowski Z, Spyer TC, Taylor WS, Watkins JG (April 1971). "Therapy of multiple personality". The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 19 (2): 57–65. doi:10.1080/00207147108407154. PMID 5549585.
  15. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Van der Hart O, Dorahy MJ (2009). "History of the concept of Dissociation". In Dell PF, O'Neil JA (eds.). Dissociation and the Dissociative Disorders: DSM V and beyond. New York: Routledge.
  16. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Jung CG (1991). Psychological Types. Routledge London. ISBN 978-0-7100-6299-4.
  17. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Scaer RC (2001). The Body Bears the Burden: Trauma, Dissociation, and Disease. Binghamton, New York: Haworth Medical Press. pp. 97–126. ISBN 978-0-7890-1246-3.
  18. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Di Fiorino M, Figueira ML, eds. (2003). "Dissociation. Dissociative phenomena. Questions and answers". Bridging Eastern & Western Psychiatry. 1 (1): 1–134.
  19. ^ a b c Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Dell P, O'Neil (2009). "Preface". In Dell P, O'Neil (eds.). Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond. New York: Routledge. pp. xix–xxi.
  20. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Weiten W, Lloyd MA (2008). Psychology Applied to Modern Life (9 ed.). Wadsworth Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-55339-7.
  21. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Snyder CR, ed. (1999). Coping: The Psychology of What Works. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511934-3.
  22. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Zeidner M, Endler NS, eds. (1996). Handbook of Coping: Theory, Research, Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-59946-3.
  23. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Lynn S, Rhue JW (1994). Dissociation: clinical and theoretical perspectives. Guilford Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-89862-186-0.
  24. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Van der Kolk BA, Van der Hart O, Marmar CR (1996). "Dissociation and information processing in posttraumatic stress disorder". In van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L (eds.). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 303–27.
  25. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Coons PM (June 1999). "Psychogenic or dissociative fugue: a clinical investigation of five cases". Psychological Reports. 84 (3 Pt 1): 881–6. doi:10.2466/pr0.1999.84.3.881. PMID 10408212. S2CID 39673692.
  26. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Kritchevsky M, Chang J, Squire LR (1 March 2004). "Functional amnesia: clinical description and neuropsychological profile of 10 cases". Learning & Memory. 11 (2): 213–26. doi:10.1101/lm.71404. PMC 379692. PMID 15054137.
  27. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Van IJzendoorn MH, Schuengel C (1996). "The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical populations: meta-analytic validation of the dissociative experiences scale (DES)". Clinical Psychology Review. 16 (5): 365–382. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(96)00006-2.
  28. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Abugel J, Simeon D (2006). Feeling Unreal: Depersonalization Disorder and the Loss of the Self. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0195170221.
  29. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.American Psychiatric Association (2013-05-22). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596. hdl:2027.42/138395. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  30. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Waller N, Putnam FW, Carlson EB (1996). "Types of dissociation and dissociative types: A taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences". Psychological Methods. 1 (3): 300–321. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.1.3.300. ISSN 1939-1463.
  31. ^ a b Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.American Psychiatric Association (2013-05-22). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596. hdl:2027.42/138395. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  32. ^ a b c d Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Carlson E, Dalenberg C, McDade-Montez E (2012). "Dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder part I: Definitions and review of research". Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 4 (5): 479–489. doi:10.1037/a0027748. ISSN 1942-969X.
  33. ^ a b c Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Marmar CR, McCaslin SE, Metzler TJ, Best S, Weiss DS, Fagan J, et al. (July 2006). "Predictors of posttraumatic stress in police and other first responders". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1071 (1): 1–18. Bibcode:2006NYASA1071....1M. doi:10.1196/annals.1364.001. hdl:2027.42/74485. PMID 16891557. S2CID 11580926.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Forner CC (2017-02-10). "Meditation and Psychotherapeutic Meditation". Dissociation, Mindfulness, and Creative Meditations. New York, NY : Routledge, 2017.: Routledge. pp. 125–139. doi:10.4324/9781315734439-8. ISBN 978-1-315-73443-9.CS1 maint: location (link)
  35. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Otis C, Marchand A, Courtois F (2012-07-01). "Peritraumatic dissociation as a mediator of peritraumatic distress and PTSD: a retrospective, cross-sectional study". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 13 (4): 469–77. doi:10.1080/15299732.2012.670870. PMID 22651680. S2CID 19132601.
  36. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Briere J, Weathers FW, Runtz M (June 2005). "Is dissociation a multidimensional construct? Data from the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 18 (3): 221–31. doi:10.1002/jts.20024. PMID 16281216.
  37. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Carlson EB, Putnam FW, Ross CA, Torem M, Coons P, Dill DL, et al. (July 1993). "Validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in screening for multiple personality disorder: a multicenter study". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 150 (7): 1030–6. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.7.1030. PMID 8317572.
  38. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Draijer N, Boon S (1992). The validation of the DES (Dissociative Experience Scale) against the criterium of the SCID-D (Structured Clinical interview for DSM-III Dissociative Disorders, using Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e610072012-022.
  39. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Loewenstein RJ (1991-09-01). "An Office Mental Status Examination for Complex Chronic Dissociative Symptoms and Multiple Personality Disorder". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Multiple Personality Disorder. 14 (3): 567–604. doi:10.1016/S0193-953X(18)30290-9. ISSN 0193-953X. PMID 1946025.
  40. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Candel I, Merckelbach H (January 2004). "Peritraumatic dissociation as a predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder: a critical review". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 45 (1): 44–50. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2003.09.012. PMID 14671736.
  41. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Vesuna S, Kauvar IV, Richman E, Gore F, Oskotsky T, Sava-Segal C, et al. (October 2020). "Deep posteromedial cortical rhythm in dissociation". Nature. 586 (7827): 87–94. Bibcode:2020Natur.586...87V. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2731-9. PMC 7553818. PMID 32939091.
  42. ^ a b c Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Salter AC, Eldridge H (1995). Transforming Trauma: A Guide to Understanding and Treating Adult Survivors. Sage Publications. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8039-5509-7.
  43. ^ a b c Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Myers JE (2002). The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment (2nd ed.). Sage Publications. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-7619-1992-6.
  44. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.van der Kolk BA, Pelcovitz D, Roth S, Mandel FS, McFarlane A, Herman JL (July 1996). "Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: the complexity of adaptation of trauma". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (7 Suppl): 83–93. doi:10.1176/ajp.153.7.83. PMID 8659645.
  45. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Briere J (February 2006). "Dissociative symptoms and trauma exposure: specificity, affect dysregulation, and posttraumatic stress". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 194 (2): 78–82. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000198139.47371.54. PMID 16477184. S2CID 31737109.
  46. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Schechter DS, Gross A, Willheim E, McCaw J, Turner JB, Myers MM, et al. (December 2009). "Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 22 (6): 658–62. doi:10.1002/jts.20472. PMC 2798921. PMID 19924819.
  47. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Briere J (April 1992). "Methodological issues in the study of sexual abuse effects". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 60 (2): 196–203. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.474.3942. doi:10.1037//0022-006x.60.2.196. PMID 1592948.
  48. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Merckelbach H, Muris P (March 2001). "The causal link between self-reported trauma and dissociation: a critical review". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 39 (3): 245–54. doi:10.1016/s0005-7967(99)00181-3. PMID 11227807.
  49. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Chu JA, Frey LM, Ganzel BL, Matthews JA (May 1999). "Memories of childhood abuse: dissociation, amnesia, and corroboration". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 156 (5): 749–55. doi:10.1176/ajp.156.5.749 (inactive 2021-01-17). PMID 10327909.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (link)
  50. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Hulette AC, Freyd JJ, Fisher PA (February 2011). "Dissociation in middle childhood among foster children with early maltreatment experiences". Child Abuse & Neglect. 35 (2): 123–6. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.10.002. PMC 3073131. PMID 21354620.
  51. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Briere J, Runtz M (January 1988). "Symptomatology associated with childhood sexual victimization in a nonclinical adult sample". Child Abuse & Neglect. 12 (1): 51–9. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(88)90007-5. PMID 3365583.
  52. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Briere J, Runtz M (September 1990). "Augmenting Hopkins SCL scales to measure dissociative symptoms: data from two nonclinical samples". Journal of Personality Assessment. 55 (1–2): 376–9. doi:10.1080/00223891.1990.9674075. PMID 2231257.
  53. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Draijer N, Langeland W (March 1999). "Childhood trauma and perceived parental dysfunction in the etiology of dissociative symptoms in psychiatric inpatients". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 156 (3): 379–85. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.08.018. PMID 10080552. S2CID 14670794.
  54. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Stern DB (January 2012). "Witnessing across time: accessing the present from the past and the past from the present". The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 81 (1): 53–81. doi:10.1002/j.2167-4086.2012.tb00485.x. PMID 22423434. S2CID 5728941.
  55. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Giannini AJ (1997). Drugs of Abuse (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Practice Management Information Corp. ISBN 978-1-57066-053-5.[page needed]
  56. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Terhune DB, Cardeña E, Lindgren M (September 2011). "Dissociated control as a signature of typological variability in high hypnotic suggestibility" (PDF). Consciousness and Cognition. 20 (3): 727–36. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.11.005. PMID 21147539. S2CID 6217910.
  57. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Wieder L, Terhune DB (May 2019). "Trauma and anxious attachment influence the relationship between suggestibility and dissociation: a moderated-moderation analysis" (PDF). Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 24 (3): 191–207. doi:10.1080/13546805.2019.1606705. PMID 30987544. S2CID 117738174.
  58. ^ a b Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Jiang H, White MP, Greicius MD, Waelde LC, Spiegel D (August 2017). "Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis". Cerebral Cortex. 27 (8): 4083–4093. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhw220. PMC 6248753. PMID 27469596.
  59. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.van der Hart O (2012-12-01). "The use of imagery in phase 1 treatment of clients with complex dissociative disorders". European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 3 (1): 8458. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.8458. PMC 3402145. PMID 22893843.
  60. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Farvolden P, Woody EZ (January 2004). "Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive functioning". The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 52 (1): 3–26. doi:10.1076/iceh.52.1.3.23926. PMID 14768966. S2CID 18298712.
  61. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Thompson BL, Waltz J (May 2010). "Mindfulness and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder avoidance symptom severity". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 24 (4): 409–15. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.02.005. PMID 20304602.
  62. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.van der Hart O, Nijenhuis ER, Steele K (2006). The Haunted Self: Structural Dissociation and the Treatment of Chronic Traumatization. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393704013.
  63. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Zerubavel N, Messman-Moore TL (2015). "Staying Present: Incorporating Mindfulness into Therapy for Dissociation". Mindfulness. 6 (2): 303–314. doi:10.1007/s12671-013-0261-3. hdl:10161/11249. ISSN 1868-8527. S2CID 1318452.
  64. ^ Page Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css has no content.Sharma T, Sinha VK, Sayeed N (2016). "Role of mindfulness in dissociative disorders among adolescents". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 58 (3): 326–328. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.192013. PMC 5100126. PMID 28066012.

External links

Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Navbar/configuration' not found.

Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Navbar/configuration' not found. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Navbar/configuration' not found.